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Cosmic Building Blocks of Life Discovered – Scientists Perform First Chemical-Free Analysis of Extraterrestrial Amino Acids in Winchcombe Meteorite

Meteorites, remnants of asteroids, are crucial for understanding our solar system’s history, acting as time capsules that preserve primordial material. Researchers have made a groundbreaking discovery in the Winchcombe meteorite, identifying key nitrogen compounds, including amino acids and hydrocarbons, without chemical treatments, using a novel detector design. This finding, significant for research into life’s origins on Earth, was facilitated by a high-resolution electron microscope at the SuperSTEM laboratory. This technique not only enhances our understanding of meteorites but also holds potential for analyzing extraterrestrial specimens from space missions.

A research team has analyzed extraterrestrial amino acids and other organic compounds in an English meteorite fall for the first time without using any chemical treatments.

Meteorites are fragments of asteroids which find their way to Earth as shooting stars. These cosmic sediments have frozen the primordial soup from which our solar system emerged – preserving it just like a time capsule. These rocks help researchers to get to the bottom of the origins of matter and of life on Earth. Working together with British colleagues, Dr. Christian Vollmer from the Institute of Mineralogy at Münster University has examined one of these time capsules, and a very special one – the Winchcombe meteorite.

The team of researchers are now the first to demonstrate, to a high degree of precision, the existence of some important nitrogen compounds in this meteorite with amino acids<div class="cell text-container large-6 small-order-0 large-order-1">
<div class="text-wrapper"><br />Amino acids are a set of organic compounds used to build proteins. There are about 500 naturally occurring known amino acids, though only 20 appear in the genetic code. Proteins consist of one or more chains of amino acids called polypeptides. The sequence of the amino acid chain causes the polypeptide to fold into a shape that is biologically active. The amino acid sequences of proteins are encoded in the genes. Nine proteinogenic amino acids are called "essential" for humans because they cannot be produced from other compounds by the human body and so must be taken in as food.<br /></div>
</div>” data-gt-translate-attributes=”[{“attribute”:”data-cmtooltip”, “format”:”html”}]” tabindex=”0″ role=”link”>amino acids
and heterocyclic hydrocarbons – without applying any chemical treatment, and by using a new type of detector design. The results have been published in the journal Nature Communications<em>Nature Communications</em> is a peer-reviewed, open-access, multidisciplinary, scientific journal published by Nature Portfolio. It covers the natural sciences, including physics, biology, chemistry, medicine, and earth sciences. It began publishing in 2010 and has editorial offices in London, Berlin, New York City, and Shanghai. ” data-gt-translate-attributes=”[{“attribute”:”data-cmtooltip”, “format”:”html”}]” tabindex=”0″ role=”link”>Nature Communications.

The Winchcombe Meteorite

The Winchcombe meteorite was observed by a camera network in England in February 2021, and it was collected within just a few days. “Normally, meteorites are tracked down in the cold and hot deserts on Earth, where the dry climate means that they don’t weather very fast, but they do change as a result of humidity,” says Christian Vollmer. “If a meteorite fall is observed soon after the event and the meteorite is quickly collected, as was the case in Winchcombe, they are important ‘witnesses’ for us regarding the birth of our solar system – which makes them especially interesting for research purposes.”

Nanomanipulator and an Ultra Fine Ion Beam

Using a nanomanipulator and an ultra-fine ion beam, a tiny lamella, about five by ten micrometres in size and only one hundred nanometres thin, is cut out of the meteorite and attached to a sample bar. The scientists can then analyze the organic particles in this lamella under an electron microscope (right). Credit: SuperSTEM Laboratory, Daresbury, UK

Origins of Life and Advanced Research Techniques

The origins of life on our planet are still shrouded in mystery, and some researchers assume that the first biologically relevant matter was transported to Earth in meteorites over four billion years ago. This matter includes for example complex organic compounds such as amino acids or hydrocarbons. However, these molecules have only very low concentrations, and the experts generally have to separate them out from the meteorite by using solvents or acids and then enrich them for analytical purposes.

Christian Vollmer’s team was now the first to be able to demonstrate the existence of these biologically relevant nitrogen compounds in the Winchcombe meteorite without first treating them chemically – although here too the concentrations of these substances are very low.

In their work, the researchers used a modern, high-resolution electron microscope such as is found at only a few locations worldwide. This “super-microscope” at the SuperSTEM laboratory in Daresbury in England not only depicts high-carbon compounds at atomic resolution – it can also analyze the samples chemically by means of a new type of detector.

“Demonstrating the existence of these biologically relevant organic compounds in an untreated meteorite is a significant achievement for research,” says Vollmer. “It shows that these building blocks of life can be characterized in these cosmic sediments even without chemical extraction.” The development is also of great importance because chemical treatment includes the risk of these fragile substances being changed.

This is why the analytical methods applied here to solid matter are potentially also valuable for research on small, extraterrestrial specimens brought back to Earth from space missions – such as the dust particles from asteroids recently brought back by the Japanese Space Agency (Hayabusa2) and NASAEstablished in 1958, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the United States Federal Government that succeeded the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). It is responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research. Its vision is "To discover and expand knowledge for the benefit of humanity." Its core values are "safety, integrity, teamwork, excellence, and inclusion." NASA conducts research, develops technology and launches missions to explore and study Earth, the solar system, and the universe beyond. It also works to advance the state of knowledge in a wide range of scientific fields, including Earth and space science, planetary science, astrophysics, and heliophysics, and it collaborates with private companies and international partners to achieve its goals.” data-gt-translate-attributes=”[{“attribute”:”data-cmtooltip”, “format”:”html”}]” tabindex=”0″ role=”link”>NASA (OSIRIS-RExLaunched in 2016, the Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) spacecraft will help astronomers investigate how planets formed and how life began, as well as improve our understanding of near-Earth asteroids.” data-gt-translate-attributes=”[{“attribute”:”data-cmtooltip”, “format”:”html”}]” tabindex=”0″ role=”link”>OSIRIS-REx).

Reference: “High-spatial resolution functional chemistry of nitrogen compounds in the observed UK meteorite fall Winchcombe” by Christian Vollmer, Demie Kepaptsoglou, Jan Leitner, Aleksander B. Mosberg, Khalil El Hajraoui, Ashley J. King, Charlotte L. Bays, Paul F. Schofield, Tohru Araki and Quentin M. Ramasse, 26 January 2024, Nature Communications.
DOI: 10.1038/s41467-024-45064-x

Source: SciTechDaily