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Scientists Identify 117 Genes That Cause Type 2 Diabetes

New research from the University of Massachusetts Amherst helps identify genetic links to type 2 diabetes risk.

A large-scale study of diverse populations increases our understanding of type 2 diabetes.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC),  37.3 million Americans have diabetes. 95% of these people have type 2 diabetes, the most common type of diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes (also known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes or adult-onset diabetes) is caused by the body’s poor utilization of insulin.  This long-term chronic illness causes an excess of sugar to circulate in the bloodstream. High blood sugar levels may eventually cause cardiovascular, neurological, and immunological problems.

Type 2 diabetes has no cure, although losing weight, eating healthily, and exercising can help you manage the condition. The exact of type 2 diabetes is unknown, however, researchers have recently found a genetic link to obtaining the disease. 

An international team of scientists, including a genetic epidemiologist from the University of Massachusetts Amherst (UMass Amherst), is conducting an ongoing study in diverse populations throughout the globe, which has revealed new important insight into how genes contribute to type 2 diabetes.

The study was published on May 12th, in Nature Genetics. “Our findings matter because we’re moving toward using genetic scores to weigh up a person’s risk of diabetes,” says co-author Cassandra Spracklen, assistant professor of biostatistics and epidemiology at the UMass Amherst School of Public Health and Health Sciences.

Cassandra Spracklen UMass Amherst

Cassandra Spracklen is an assistant professor of biostatistics and epidemiology at the UMass Amherst School of Public Health and Health Sciences. Credit: UMass Amherst

Andrew Morris, professor of statistical genetics at the University of Manchester, and University of Oxford professors Mark McCarthy and Anubha Mahajan co-led the DIAMANTE (DIabetes Meta-ANalysis of Trans-Ethnic association studies) Consortium’s meta-analysis of 122 different genome-wide association studies (GWAS).

“The global prevalence of type 2 diabetes, a life-changing disease, has quadrupled over the last 30 years, affecting approximately 392 million people in 2015,” Morris says.

The research is a major step toward the ultimate goal of identifying novel genes and understanding the biology of the disease, which has the potential to help scientists develop new treatments.

It is also an important milestone in the development of “genetic risk scores” to identify individuals who are more predisposed to develop type 2 diabetes, regardless of their population background.

The meta-analysis compared the DNADNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is a molecule composed of two long strands of nucleotides that coil around each other to form a double helix. It is the hereditary material in humans and almost all other organisms that carries genetic instructions for development, functioning, growth, and reproduction. Nearly every cell in a person’s body has the same DNA. Most DNA is located in the cell nucleus (where it is called nuclear DNA), but a small amount of DNA can also be found in the mitochondria (where it is called mitochondrial DNA or mtDNA).” data-gt-translate-attributes=”[{“attribute”:”data-cmtooltip”, “format”:”html”}]”>DNA of almost 181,000 people with type 2 diabetes against 1.16 million people who didn’t have the disease. Searching across the entire human genome for sets of genetic markers called single nucleotide polymorphisms, or SNPs, genome-wide association studies look for genetic differences between people with and without a disease.

The technique allows scientists to zero in on parts of the genome involved in disease risk, which helps pinpoint the genes that cause the disease.

However, the largest genome-wide association studies of type 2 diabetes historically have involved the DNA of people of European descent, which has limited progress in understanding the disease in other population groups.

To address this bias, scientists from the DIAMANTE Consortium assembled the world’s most diverse collection of genetic information on the disease, with almost 50% of individuals from East Asian, African, South Asian, and Hispanic population groups.

“Up to now, over 80% of genomic research of this type has been conducted in white European-ancestry populations, but we know that scores developed exclusively in individuals of one ancestry don’t work well in people of a different ancestry,” says Spracklen, who helped analyze and coordinate the data sharing from the East Asian ancestry populations.

The new paper builds off Spracklen’s previous research identifying genetic associations with type 2 diabetes in East Asian-ancestry populations and identifying genetic associations with diabetes-related traits (fasting glucose, fasting insulin, HbA1c) in multi-ancestry populations.

“Because our research has included people from many different parts of the world, we now have a much more complete picture of the ways in which patterns of genetic risk for type 2 diabetes vary across populations,” McCarthy says.

Mahajan adds, “We have now identified 117 genes that are likely to cause Type 2 diabetes, 40 of which have not been reported before. That is why we feel this constitutes a major step forward in understanding the biology of this disease.”

The international study was partly funded by the National Institutes of Health, Wellcome, and the Medical Research Council in the United Kingdom.

Reference: “Multi-ancestry genetic study of type 2 diabetes highlights the power of diverse populations for discovery and translation” by Anubha Mahajan, Cassandra N. Spracklen, Weihua Zhang, Maggie C. Y. Ng, Lauren E. Petty, Hidetoshi Kitajima, Grace Z. Yu, Sina Rüeger, Leo Speidel, Young Jin Kim, Momoko Horikoshi, Josep M. Mercader, Daniel Taliun, Sanghoon Moon, Soo-Heon Kwak, Neil R. Robertson, Nigel W. Rayner, Marie Loh, Bong-Jo Kim, Joshua Chiou, Irene Miguel-Escalada, Pietro della Briotta Parolo, Kuang Lin, Fiona Bragg, Michael H. Preuss, Fumihiko Takeuchi, Jana Nano, Xiuqing Guo, Amel Lamri, Masahiro Nakatochi, Robert A. Scott, Jung-Jin Lee, Alicia Huerta-Chagoya, Mariaelisa Graff, Jin-Fang Chai, Esteban J. Parra, Jie Yao, Lawrence F. Bielak, Yasuharu Tabara, Yang Hai, Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir, James P. Cook, Mart Kals, Niels Grarup, Ellen M. 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DOI: 10.1038/s41588-022-01058-3

Source: SciTechDaily