A giant star faces several possible fates when it dies in a supernova. That star can either be completely destroyed, become a black holeA black hole is a place in space where the pull of gravity is so strong not even light can escape it. Astronomers classify black holes into three categories by size: miniature, stellar, and supermassive black holes. Miniature black holes could have a mass smaller than our Sun and supermassive black holes could have a mass equivalent to billions of our Sun.”>black hole, or become a neutron starA neutron star is the collapsed core of a large (between 10 and 29 solar masses) star. Neutron stars are the smallest and densest stars known to exist. Though neutron stars typically have a radius on the order of just 10 – 20 kilometers (6 – 12 miles), they can have masses of about 1.3 – 2.5 that of the Sun.”>neutron star. The outcome depends on the dying star’s mass and other factors, all of which shape what happens when stars explode in a supernova.
Neutron stars are among the densest objects in the cosmos. They average only about 12 miles in diameter but are denser than our sun, which is more than 72,000 times bigger than a neutron star. Neutron stars got their name because their cores have such powerful gravity that most positively charged protons and negatively charged electrons in the interior of these stars combine into uncharged neutrons.
Neutron stars produce no new heat. However, they are incredibly hot when they form and cool slowly. The neutron stars we can observe average about 1.8 million degrees FahrenheitThe Fahrenheit scale is a temperature scale, named after the German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit and based on one he proposed in 1724. In the Fahrenheit temperature scale, the freezing point of water freezes is 32 °F and water boils at 212 °F, a 180 °F separation, as defined at sea level and standard atmospheric pressure. ”>Fahrenheit, compared to about 9,900 degrees Fahrenheit for the Sun.
Neutron stars have an important role in the universe. Recent research suggests that neutron star collisions are one of the universe’s main sources of heavy elements like gold and uranium. The process of creating new atomic nuclei from pre-existing protons and neutrons, whether it occurs during a neutron star collision, a supernova, the burning of stars, or the Big BangThe Big Bang is the leading cosmological model explaining how the universe as we know it began roughly 13.8 billion years ago.”>Big Bang, is called nucleosynthesis.
- The enormous density of a neutron star means a teaspoon of neutron star material would weigh 10 million tons.
- At only about 12 miles in diameter, a neutron star would fit inside the boundaries of Chicago.
- Neutron stars have exceptionally strong magnetic fields around them.
- Neutron stars rotate extremely rapidly due to the conservation of angular momentum.
- Many neutron stars are observed through periodic (or pulsed) radio waves they emit (these are called pulsars).
- Neutron star collisions are no small affair. The event releases the equivalent of hundreds of millions times our Sun’s energy, distorting spacetime as gravitational wavesGravitational waves are distortions or ripples in the fabric of space and time. They were first detected in 2015 by the Advanced LIGO detectors and are produced by catastrophic events such as colliding black holes, supernovae, or merging neutron stars.”>gravitational waves.
DOE Office of Science: Contributions to Neutron Star Research
The DOE Office of Science Nuclear Physics program supports research in nuclear astrophysics. This scientific discipline helps us understand neutron stars and other objects in the cosmos. Two university-based DOE Centers of Excellence—the Cyclotron Institute at Texas A&M University and the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory—specialize in the study of nuclear astrophysics. DOE also funds research on the Big Bang, stars, supernovae, and neutron star mergers and their roles as sources of elements. The Nuclear Physics program at the DOE Office of Science funded research that produced supercomputer models of neutron star collisions. DOE also supports experiments at DOE’s Jefferson Lab
that, by measuring the distribution of neutrons in nuclei, tell us about the physics of neutron stars and the properties of dense nuclear matter. Studying the properties of dense nuclear matter and neutron-rich matter is also part of the purpose of the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams and the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System, both DOE Office of Science user facilities.